Induced pluripotent stem cells
Pluripotent Stem Cells
There are several stem cells sources in human body. And this is just a very good news, since stem cells are needed in large amount to cure many chronic diseases. So far, stem cells are taken from embryo, adult tissues, and cord blood.
1. From embryo, pluripotent and totipotent stem cells are extracted. Both of them are embryonic stem cells.
2. From adult tissues, bone marrow blood stem cells are taken.
3. From placental cord (umbilical cord), the cord blood stem cells are taken.
There are actually lots of stem cells' terms available and useful. Now, let's focus on this term : pluripotent stem cells.
Pluripotent stem cells(PSC) are the embryonic stem cells which are
well-known as 'genuine cells' because they can be specialized into
any types of cells in human body, except the cells needed to develop
fetus. When the PSC pass their embryonic period, they will lose their
abilities to become any types of cells, and only limited types of
cells that they can be specialized into.
Therefore it is crucial to cultivate the pluripotent stem cell in their embryonic period.
This miraculous ability of pluripotent stem cells makes us wonder where they come from. When the sperm meets the egg, the fertilization process happens and it produces its first cell, the totipotent cell. The single totipotent cell divides itself into more totipotent cells after hours and days of the fertilization. At the fourth day, the totipotent cells form another group of cells which are known as the blastocyst. The blastocyst contains many pluripotent cells, and this is how the pluripotent cells created.
Totipotent cells have the ability to form a fetus which develops to become a human being, while pluripotent cells do not have that ability. Pluripotent cells specialize themselves into many types of cells to form tissues, nerves and heart.
There are three different ways to extract the PSC :
1. the pluripotent cells are isolated in the blastocyst. But this way can damage the healthy embryo which is to become a complete human
2. the pluripotent cells are taken from the aborted fetus
3. the pluripotent cells are isolated from embryonic carcinoma or a fetus' cancerous tumor cells.
Pluripotent stem cells treatment have many advantages, such as :
1. provide healthy cells and tissues.
2. cure heart diseases, diabetes, burns, and Parkinson.
3. expert in forming heart, nerve, muscle and blood cells
4. can be specialized into 220 types of human cells
5. used in drug testing before the drug is given to human. Therefore it replaces the cruel animal drug testing
However, the satisfying pluripotent stem cells treatment also faces some tough challenges, such as :
1. in controlling the specialization process so it can be developed well into many types of cells successfully.
2. human body immune system rejects the pluripotent stem cells transplant.
3. since pluripotent cells extraction can harm the embryo, and they are also part of the embryo itself, experiment on them is considered non ethical.
benefits is intended for your general information only
and is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment.
Pluripotent stem cells | Induced pluripotent stem cells